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civil/structural/forensic engineering, code consulting, building inspections

Probable Maximum Loss

The Probable Maximum Loss (PML), is the standard tool used by real estate investors and lenders to evaluate how buildings will behave during a seismic event. The United States is divided into four zones depending on seismic hazard risk. Typically, real estate investors, developers, property owners, and lending institutions are all concerned about assets in seismic zone 3 and 4, which are areas that are more prone to earthquakes.


Odin Engineering prepares PMLs to meet the requirements of the scope of work defined by ASTM E 2026, Standard Guide for Estimation of Building Damageability in Earthquakes. The PML is intended to suggest how the property will be affected by a probable seismic event.


In preparing a PML, we evaluate the likely costs incurred from seismic damage to structures on a given site. Our engineers inspect and discuss building types, critical connections, local soil conditions, and local seismic activity to use in calculating the PML for 50 years and/or 500 years.